IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2311381
Open Access Review
Current Evidence and Future Perspectives of the Best Supplements for Cardioprotection: Have We Reached the Final Chapter for Vitamins?
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1 Department of Internal Medicine, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, 74200 Karachi, Pakistan
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Ziauddin University, 75000 Karachi, Pakistan
3 Department of Internal Medicine, St Joseph Medical Center, Houston, TX 77002, USA
4 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA
*Correspondence: (Farah Yasmin)
Academic Editors: Demosthenes B Panagiotakos and Matina Kouvari
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(11), 381;
Submitted: 2 February 2022 | Revised: 27 June 2022 | Accepted: 26 July 2022 | Published: 9 November 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a broad-spectrum term comprising coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, and heart failure, presents as one of the most significant strains on global healthcare systems. Coronary artery disease, caused by atherosclerosis, has various modifiable risk factors such as dietary changes and exercise. Since these risk factors are found to be linked to oxidative stress and inflammations, the dietary supplementation with vitamins’ role in treating and preventing the diseases has been of much debate. With various vitamins having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, studies have explored their correlation with cardiovascular health. Therefore, this narrative review explores and evaluates the benefits and risks of all vitamin supplementations in patients with CVD and provides future recommendations.

cardiovascular disease
endothelial dysfunction
arterial hypertension
vitamin supplementation
Fig. 1.
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