Academic Editors: John Lynn Jefferies and Salvatore De Rosa
Background: The term myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA), defines a puzzling event occurring in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease on coronary angiography and without an overt potential cause. However, a practical diagnostic work-up is often difficult, due to the heterogeneous etiologies and pathophysiology of MINOCA. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview focusing on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for subjects with MINOCA, in order to provide a prompt and accurate diagnostic work-up and an adequate therapeutic approach in this subset population. Methods: This educational review was carried out by following the standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and the PRISMA statement. The terms “MINOCA” OR (“myocardial infarction” AND (“non-obstructive” OR “non-obstructive”)) were searched in PubMed and Embase databases (in Title and/or Abstract) from 1st January 2003 until 31st May 2022. Results: Etiologic findings, clinical presentation and the degree of hemodynamic impairment play a pivotal role in defining the patient’s natural history and prognostic outcome, and may significantly impact on the decision-making strategies and therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: Despite further advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, MINOCA remains a challenging conundrum in clinical practice. Clinicians should be aware of the different potential etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms of MINOCA, in order to carry out a comprehensive diagnostic work-up and implement a tailored therapeutic approach.