IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2301019
Open Access Review
Sex beyond cardiovascular risk factors and clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular disease
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1 Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*Correspondence: (Olivia Manfrini)
Academic Editor: Leonardo De Luca
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(1), 19;
Submitted: 1 July 2021 | Revised: 4 August 2021 | Accepted: 3 September 2021 | Published: 14 January 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

In recent years, increasing attention has been reserved to the analysis of sex-related differences in pathophysiology and prognosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The traditional conventional cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesteremia, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking) are still considered the major risk factors for IHD in both sexes. Nevertheless, recent studies show that they may interact with male and female coronary anatomy in a different manner. The path to sex-specific risk stratification of IHD is also supported by differences in inflammation and necrosis biomarkers (such as C-reactive protein and troponins, respectively). Indeed, large cohort studies often show different mean values of these markers in men and women. The current review summarizes the state-of-art knowledge on sex-related differences in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac biomarkers with a prognostic value.

Ischemic heart disease
Sex differences
Risk factors
Fig. 1.
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