†These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
Patients with chronic congestive heart failure belong to a population with reduced quality of life, poor functional class, and increased risk of mortality and morbidity. In these patients, assessment of invasive hemodynamics both serves therapeutic purposes and is useful for stratification roles. The right heart catheterization has become a cornerstone diagnostic tool for patients in refractory heart failure or cardiogenic shock, as well as for the assessment of candidacy for heart replacement therapies, and the management of patients following mechanical circulatory assist device implantation and heart transplantation.