IMR Press / JIN / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2203070
Open Access Review
Maturation, Morphology, and Function: The Decisive Role of Intestinal Flora on Microglia: A Review
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1 Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430022 Wuhan, Hubei, China
*Correspondence: (Xiaorong Dong)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2023, 22(3), 70;
Submitted: 12 October 2022 | Revised: 16 January 2023 | Accepted: 19 January 2023 | Published: 9 May 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota regulates intestinal function and maintains intestinal homeostasis, as well as interacting with the central nervous system to affect brain function and human behavior. Microglia are the most common immune cell type in the central nervous system during homeostasis. These cells play an important role in immune surveillance by responding to infections and other pathological conditions. Microglia also play a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis in both developing and adult mice by phagocytosing cell debris and regulating the formation of neural networks. The specific signaling pathways and cytokines that control the maturation and activation of microglia are currently not fully established. However, research on germ-free (GF) mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice indicate that gut microbiota have important interactions with microglia. Here, we review the latest research findings on how gut microbiota can affect the morphology, maturation, phenotype and function of microglia. We also discuss recent advances in the gut microbiota-microglia-disease axis.

gut microbiota
gut-brain axis
neurodegenerative diseases
81573090/National Natural Science Foundation of China
81172595/National Natural Science Foundation of China
81703165/National Natural Science Foundation of China
Fig. 1.
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