IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2106166
Open Access Review
Cranial Autonomic Symptoms and Migraine: What Relationship and What Meaning? A Review
Show Less
1 Child Neuropsychiatry Unit Department, Pro.M.I.S.E. "G D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
2 Child Neuropsychiatry Department, ISMEP - ARNAS Civico Palermo, via dei Benedettini, 90100 Palermo, Italy
*Correspondence: (Vincenzo Raieli)
Academic Editor: Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(6), 166;
Submitted: 23 June 2022 | Revised: 22 July 2022 | Accepted: 22 July 2022 | Published: 9 October 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraine: from Bench to Clinical Practice)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS) have been usually associated with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC’s), however in the last few years several reports in adult and pediatric population have reported important presence of the CAS in migraine. Also several evidences experimentally show that the increased parasympathetic outflow can enhance the sensitization of nociceptive receptors involved in migraine. The presence of CAS suggests an activation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex, probably related to an over-activation of the trigeminal afferent arm. For these reasons identifing and understanding of these symptoms in migraine may be important to help in the diagnosis and effective management. The purpose of this review is, analyzing the literature data, to discuss the prevalence of these CAS in migraine, the pathophysiological meaning in the pathogenesis of migraine and whether their presence influences the prognosis and therapy of migraine in adult and pediatric age.

cranial autonomic symptoms
parasympathetic system
trigeminal autonomic cephalgias
Fig. 1.
Back to top