IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2105138
Open Access Review
Impact of Cardiovascular Diseases on Ischemic Stroke Outcomes
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1 Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences and Center for Brain and Behavior Research, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
*Correspondence: (Hongmin Wang)
Academic Editor: Emilia Salvadori
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(5), 138;
Submitted: 9 April 2022 | Revised: 21 May 2022 | Accepted: 27 May 2022 | Published: 26 July 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Stroke induces complex pathological cascades in the affected brain area, leading to brain injury and functional disability. To fight against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal death, numerous neuroprotective strategies and reagents have been studied. However, translation of these neuroprotective drugs to clinical trials has been unsuccessful. To date, the tissue plasminogen activator is still the only FDA-approved drug for treating ischemic stroke. Thus, it is obligatory to identify and validate additional therapeutic strategies for stroke. A stroke rarely occurs without any other pathophysiological condition; but instead, it often has multi-morbidity conditions, one of which is cardiac disease. Indeed, up to half of the stroke cases are associated with cardiac and large artery diseases. As an adequate blood supply is essential for the brain to maintain its normal function, any pathophysiological alterations in the heart are frequently implicated in stroke outcomes. In this review, we summarize some of the cardiovascular factors that influence stroke outcomes and propose that considering these factors in designing stroke therapies should enhance success in clinical trials. We also highlight the recent advances regarding the potential effect of protein aggregates in a peripheral organ, such as in the heart, on ischemic stroke-caused brain injury and functional recovery. Including these and other comorbidity factors in the future therapeutic strategy designs should facilitate translational success toward developing effective combinational therapies for the disorder.

ischemic stroke
protein aggregates
Fig. 1.
HL072166/National Institutes of Health
HL153614/National Institutes of Health
NS124846/National Institutes of Health
T32GM-136503/National Institutes of Health
DGE-1633213/National Science Foundation
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