IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2104120
Open Access Original Research
Gender Differences in Pain Subtypes among Patients with Parkinson's Disease
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1 Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 330006 Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
2 Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, 330006 Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 330006 Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
*Correspondence: (Yuanping Xiong); (Liang Gao)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Rafael Franco
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(4), 120;
Submitted: 27 December 2021 | Revised: 19 February 2022 | Accepted: 24 February 2022 | Published: 28 June 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: To determine the influence of gender on the different pain subtypes experienced by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: Two hundred patients with PD were recruited for this research. Demographic features for all patients were recorded, as well as clinical data on age, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and scores for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS III), Hoehn-Yahr Scale (H&Y), King’s Parkinson’s disease Pain Scale (KPPS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), activities of daily living scale (ADL), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) scales. Results: Male and female patients showed no significant differences in terms of age, disease duration, LEDD, H&Y stage, and UPDRS III, HAMD, HAMA, PSQI and ADL scores. Women showed significantly lower MMSE than men, but their KPPS scores were higher (both p < 0.05). Female also showed significantly higher scores for chronic, fluctuation-related pain and oro-facial pain and more discoloration;edema/swelling than males (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Female gender was associated with pain in PD patients, with stronger associations for certain subtypes of PD-related pain.

Parkinson's disease
King's Parkinson's disease Pain Scale
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