IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2101037
Open Access Review
OnabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of headache: an updated review
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1 College of Medicine, Howard University, 20059 Washington, D.C., USA
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 11956 Cairo, Egypt
*Correspondence: (Ayman G. Elnahry)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(1), 37;
Submitted: 24 June 2021 | Revised: 6 August 2021 | Accepted: 25 August 2021 | Published: 28 January 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Botulinum toxin (BT) is a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. Systemic human intoxication from BT following oral ingestion results in acute and life-threatening muscle paralysis called botulism. BT has a wide scope of therapeutic uses, including conditions associated with increased muscle tone, smooth muscle hyperactivity, salivation, sweating, and allergies, as well as for cosmetic purposes. Several commercial forms of BT are available for medical use, including Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA). Multiple studies have found evidence of an analgesic effect of onabotulinumtoxinA and demonstrated the benefits of its use for the treatment of various chronic pain disorders. In this review, we provide an update on the use of onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of headache disorders.

Botulinum toxin
Chronic headache
Chronic migraine
Cluster headache
Fig. 1.
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