IMR Press / JIN / Volume 20 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2004082
Open Access Original Research
Filaments and four ordered structures inside a neuron fire a thousand times faster than the membrane: theory and experiment
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1 International Center for Materials and Nanoarchitectronics (WPI-MANA), Research Center for Advanced Measurement and Characterization (RCAMC), NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, 3050047 Ibaraki, Japan
2 Amity School of Applied Science, Amity University Rajasthan, Kant Kalwar, NH-11C, Jaipur Delhi Highway, Jaipur, 303007 Rajasthan, India
3 Chemical Science and Technology Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, NEIST, Jorhat, 785006 Assam, India
4 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, UP 201002, India
5 Microwave Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, 282005 Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
6 Department Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal, India
7 Integrative Neuroscience Group, Melbourne, VIC 3145, Australia
*Correspondence: (Anirban Bandyopadhyay)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2021, 20(4), 777–790;
Submitted: 1 November 2021 | Revised: 2 December 2021 | Accepted: 16 December 2021 | Published: 30 December 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

The current action potential paradigm considers that all components beneath the neuron membrane are inconsequential. Filamentary communication is less known to the ionic signal transmission; recently, we have proposed that the two are intimately linked through time domains. We modified the atom probe-connected dielectric resonance scanner to operate in two-time domains, milliseconds and microseconds simultaneously for the first time. We resonate the ions for imaging rather than neutralizing them as patch clamps do; resonant transmission images the ion flow 103 times faster than the existing methods. We revisited action potential-related events by scanning in and around the axon initial segment (AIS). Four ordered structures in the cytoskeletal filaments exchange energy ~250 μs before a neuron fires, editing spike-time-gap—key to the brain’s cognition. We could stop firing above a threshold or initiate a fire by wirelessly pumping electromagnetic signals. We theoretically built AIS, whose simulated electromagnetic energy exchange matched the experiment. Thus far, the scanner could detect & link uncorrelated biological events unfolding over 106 orders in the time scale simultaneously. Our experimental findings support a new dielectric resonator model of neuron functioning in various time domains, thus suggesting the dynamic anatomy of electrical activity as information-rich.

Neuron imaging
Coaxial electrode
Action potential
Fig. 1.
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