Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are large, high conductance Ca2+ channels that control the level of intracellular Ca2+ by releasing Ca2+ from an intracellular compartment, the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. Mammalian tissues express 3 closely related ryanodine receptors (RyRs) known as skeletal muscle (RyR1), cardiac muscle (RyR2) and brain (RyR3). The RyRs are isolated as 30S protein complexes comprised of four 560 kDa RyR2 subunits and four 12.6 kDa FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) subunits. Multiple endogenous effector molecules and posttranslational modifications regulate the RyRs. This chapter reviews the regulation of the mammalian RyRs by endogenous effector molecules.