Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Kenth Gustafsson
Adhesion of platelets to the damaged subendothelium is a prerequisite reaction for the initiation of hemostasis in vivo. Platelet membranes contain high concentrations of integrins and other glycoproteins (GPs) that are involved in the platelet adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In the present review, we focus on two platelet integrins, integrin alphaIIb beta3 (GPIIb/IIIa) and integrin alpha2 beta1 (GPIa/IIa) because these integrins are major components of the platelet membrane proteins and are known to contribute to platelet adhesion to fibrin(ogen) and collagen surfaces, respectively. These integrins bind soluble ligands (fibrinogen or collagen) after platelets are activated but only have low affinity towards these ligands when platelets are in the resting state. We describe the binding properties of these integrins and discuss the mechanism for the activation of these integrins. Platelets can adhere to fibrin(ogen) or collagen immobilized on a surface. When platelets adhere to a collagen- or fibrin-coated surface, they become activated and form aggregates; this is especially prominent under flow conditions. We discuss the contribution of these integrins and non-integrin proteins, GPIb and GPVI, to the platelet adhesion on to the collagen surface, especially under flow conditions, a system that most closely approximates platelet adhesion in vivo.