IMR Press / FBL / Volume 29 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2905183
Open Access Original Research
Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cholinesterase, and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Plant Derived Extracts and Column Semi-Purified Fractions of Ficus benghalensis
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1 Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, 23561 Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, 11671 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, 54000 Lahore, Pakistan
4 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, National University of Medical Sciences, 00666 Rawalpindi, Pakistan
5 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, 54000 Lahore, Pakistan
6 Department of Pharmacy, Bacha Khan University, 24420 Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
7 Department of Botany, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, 248001 Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
8 Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
9 National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology [INSTM], 50121 Firenze, Italy
10 Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 221005 Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Correspondence: (Abdur Rauf); (Marcello Iriti)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2024, 29(5), 183;
Submitted: 14 August 2023 | Revised: 15 September 2023 | Accepted: 26 October 2023 | Published: 11 May 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: The present study aimed to investigate the in-vitro anti-diabetic, anti-cholinesterase, and anti-inflammatory potential of extracts from different parts of Ficus benghalensis, including leaves, stem, and roots, as well as isolated column fractions (F-B-1 C, F-B-2 C, F-B-3 C, and F-B-4 C). Methods: The extracts and subsequent fractions were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against key enzymes involved in diabetes [α-glucosidase and α-amylase], neurodegenerative diseases [acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase], and inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)). Results: The results showed that F. benghalensis leaf extract exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (73.84%) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (76.29%) at 1000 µg/mL. The stem extract (65.50%) and F-B-2 C fraction (69.67%) also demonstrated significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In terms of anti-cholinesterase activity, the extracts of roots, leaves, and stem showed promising inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 50.50 to 474.83 µg/mL. The derived fractions (F-B-1 C, F-B-2 C, F-B-3 C, and F-B-4 C) also exhibited notable inhibition of AChE and BChE, with IC50 values from 91.85 to 337.94 µg/mL. Moreover, the F-B-3 C fraction demonstrated the highest COX-2 inhibitory potential (85.72%), followed by F-B-1 C (83.13%), the stem extract (80.85%), and the leaves extract (79.00%). The F-B-1 C fraction showed the highest 5-LOX inhibitory activity (87.63%), while the root extract exhibited the lowest inhibition (73.39%). Conclusions: The results demonstrated promising bioactivity, suggesting the potential of F. benghalensis as a source of natural compounds with therapeutic applications. Further studies are required to identify and isolate the active components responsible for these effects and to evaluate their in-vivo efficacy and safety.

Ficus benghalensis
PNURSP2024R18/Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University Researchers Supporting Project
Fig. 1.
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