IMR Press / FBL / Volume 28 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2802036
Open Access Original Research
Fate Determination and Characterization of Food Additive Silicon Dioxide and Titanium Dioxide in Commercial Foods
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1 Division of Applied Food System, Major of Food Science & Technology, Seoul Women's University, 01797 Seoul, Republic of Korea
*Correspondence: (Soo-Jin Choi)
These authors contributed equally.
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2023, 28(2), 36;
Submitted: 29 December 2022 | Revised: 15 February 2023 | Accepted: 17 February 2023 | Published: 24 February 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicants and Contaminants in Food)
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are ones of the most widely used food additives as an anti-caking and a coloring agent, respectively, in the food industry. Understanding particle, aggregate, or ionic fates of two additives in commercial products is of importance to predict their potential toxicity. Methods: Triton X-114 (TX-114)-based cloud point extraction (CPE) methods for two additives were optimized in food matrices. Their particle or ionic fates in various commercial foods were determined by the CPE, and the physico-chemical properties of separated particles were further characterized. Results: SiO2 and TiO2 were primarily present as particle forms without changes in constituent particle size, size distribution, and crystalline phase. The maximum solubilities of SiO2 and TiO2 were 5.5% and 0.9%, respectively, depending on food matrix type, supporting their major particle fates in complex food matrices. Conclusions: These findings will provide basic information about the fates and safety aspects of SiO2 and TiO2 additives in commercial processed foods.

silicon dioxide
titanium dioxide
cloud point extract
particle size
crystalline phase
2021R1A2C2007192/National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)
20182MFDS404/Ministry of Food and Drug Safety
2022-0173/Seoul Women’s University
Fig. 1.
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