IMR Press / FBL / Volume 28 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2801018
Open Access Systematic Review
Effect of L-Carnosine in Patients with Age-Related Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Ramachandra Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, 600116 Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Faculty of Data Science and Information Technology, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai, Malaysia
3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Guwahati, Changsari, 781101 Kamrup (R), Assam, India
4 Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, 603203 Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, 60115 Surabaya, Indonesia
6 School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia
7 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei
8 Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Thandalam, 602105 Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
*Correspondence: (Khang Wen Goh); (Vijayakumar Thangavel Mahalingam); (Chrismawan Ardianto); (Rajanandh Muhasaparur Ganesan)
Academic Editors: Leonid A. Gavrilov and Thomas Heinbockel
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2023, 28(1), 18;
Submitted: 8 August 2022 | Revised: 5 December 2022 | Accepted: 8 December 2022 | Published: 18 January 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Introduction: L-carnosine has been found to have multimodal activity. Aim: The aim of this review was to find out the efficacy of L-carnosine in patients with age-related diseases. Methods: Clinical studies evaluated the effect of L-carnosine on cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders were searched in electronic bibliographic databases. The protocol has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022314033). The revised Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials was used to assess all of the reports for risk of bias. RevMan 5.4 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Results: Following the screening process, 14 papers were selected for systematic review, with 9 of them being qualified for meta-analysis. Many of the included studies showed that L-carnosine has potential therapeutic activity in age related diseases. Results from the meta-analysis showed that in diabetes mellitus, HbA1c [mean difference (MD) 95% CI = –1.25 (–2.49, –0.022); p = 0.05; p = 0.001; I2 = 85%] and fasting blood sugar (FBS) [MD 95% CI = –12.44 (–22.44, –2.44); p = 0.01; p = 0.40; I2 = 0%] and in neurodegenerative disorder, Wechsler Memory Scale Logical Memory 2 (WMS-LM2) [MD 95% CI = 1.34 (0.83, 1.85); p < 0.00001; p = 0.43; I2 = 0%], showed statistically significant difference, favoring the L-carnosine group over the control group. While in neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer ’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) [MD 95% CI = 0.98 (–1.55, –0.42); p = 0.0007; p = 0.86; I2 = 0%] and Back Depression Inventory (BDI) [MD 95% CI = –1.12 (–1.87, –0.37); p = 0.003; p = 0.73; I2 = 0%] showed statistically significant difference, favoring the control group over L-carnosine group. Conclusions: Clinical studies were conducted to manage chemotherapy induced toxicities and there are no clinical studies available for its anti-cancer use, and the current evidence does not support its use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Alzheimer's disease
amino acid
cardiovascular diseases
neurological diseases
2-(3- aminopropanoylamino)-3-(3H-imidazol-4-yl) propanoic acid
  • The dipeptide molecule L-carnosine has been found to have multimodal action.
  • Efficacy of L-carnosine in patients with age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders is reviewed.
  • Trials suggest that L-carnosine can be used to treat chemotherapy-induced toxicities, however evidence of anti-cancer action is limited.
  • The current evidence does not support the use of L-carnosine in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
  • L-carnosine is beneficial to patients with diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment.
Fig. 1.
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