†These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Said El Shamieh
Genomic mutations are the driving force of biological diversity but they are also the cause of a plethora of human diseases ranging from heritable disorders to neurological pathologies and cancer. For most genetic disorders, there is no curative treatment available to date. The demand for precise, preferably patient-specific, treatment regimen offering cure is naturally high. Genome editing by Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas enables targeted manipulation of genomes, thereby offering the opportunity to treat such diseases. While ethical and regulatory guidelines need to be developed and considered, the prospect of genome editing for curative treatment is certainly exciting. Here, we review the current state of therapeutics based on genome editing techniques. We highlight recent breakthroughs, describe clinical trials employing genome editing-based medicine, discuss the benefits and pitfalls, and take a look into the future of genome editing.