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IMR Press / FBL / Volume 27 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2711310
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Open Access Review
Role of Salicylic Acid in Combating Heat Stress in Plants: Insights into Modulation of Vital Processes
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1 Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, 133207 Ambala, India
2 Department of Environmental Science SP College, 190001 Srinagar, India
3 Department of Molecular Biology, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, 125004 Hisar, India
4 Department of Seed Science and Technology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, 125004 Hisar, India
5 Department of Environmental Science, Government Degree College, 190017 Eidgah, India
6 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, 303329 Jaipur, India
7 Department of Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, 125004 Hisar, India
8 Department of Microbiology, PSGVP Mandal's S I Patil Arts, G B Patel Science and STKV Sangh Commerce College, 425409 Shahada, India
9 Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, 24382 Makkah, Saudi Arabia
10 Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
*Correspondence: sayyedrz@gmail.com (R. Z. Sayyed); peter.poczai@helsinki.fi (Peter Poczai)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2022, 27(11), 310; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.fbl2711310
Submitted: 15 August 2022 | Revised: 2 October 2022 | Accepted: 17 October 2022 | Published: 22 November 2022
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Abstract

In the present era of climate change and global warming, high temperatures have increased considerably, posing a threat to plant life. Heat stress affects the biochemistry, physiology and molecular makeup of the plant by altering the key processes, i.e., photosynthesis, respiration and reproduction which reduces its growth and development. There is a dire need to manage this problem sustainably for plant conservation as well as the food security of the human population. Use of phytohormones to induce thermotolerance in plants can be a sustainable way to fight the adversities of heat stress. Phytohormone-induced thermotolerance proves to be a compelling approach to sustainably relieve the damaging effects of heat stress on plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential molecule in biotic and abiotic defense response signal transduction pathways. When supplied externally, it imparts heat stress tolerance to the plants by different means, viz., increased Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) production, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, protection of the reproductive system and enhancing photosynthetic efficiency. The effect of SA on plants is highly dependent on the concentration applied, plant species, plant age, type of tissues treated, and duration of the treatment. The present review paper summarizes the mechanism of thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid in plants under heat stress conditions. It includes the regulatory effects of SA on heat shock proteins, antioxidant metabolism, and maintenance of Ca${}^{2+}$ homeostasis under heat stress. This review combines the studies conducted to elucidate the role of SA in the modulation of different mechanisms which lead to heat stress tolerance in plants. It discusses the mechanism of SA in protecting the photosynthetic machinery and reproductive system during high-temperature stress.

Keywords
antioxidant system
heat shock proteins
heat stress tolerance
photosynthesis
salicylic acid
Highlights
• The changing climate has led to severe heat stress in recent years, posing a threat to the agricultural system.
• The use of phytohormones is a sustainable way to combat the adversities of heat stress as they induce thermotolerance in plants.
• This review paper summarizes several studies to understand the mechanism of thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid in plants under heat stress conditions.
• It includes the regulatory effects of SA on heat shock proteins, antioxidant metabolism, and maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis under heat stress.
• It includes the role of SA in protecting the photosynthetic machinery and reproductive system during high-temperature stress.
Funding
22UQU4310387DSR33/Deanship of Scientific Research at Umm Al-Qura University
Figures
Fig. 1.
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