IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/4901

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Crosstalk between CML cells with HUVECs and BMSCs through exosomes
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1 Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Sanko University, Gaziantep, Turkey
2 Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Graduate Education Institute, Sanko University, Gaziantep, Turkey
3 Department of Medical Biochemstry School of Medicine, Sanko University, Gaziantep, Turkey
4 Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate Education Institute, Sanko University, Gaziantep, Turkey
5 Department of Internal Medicine and Hematology, Sanko University Sani Konukoglu Application and Research Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey
Send correspondence to: Zafer Cetin, Sanko University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, Gazimuhtar Pasa Bulvarı No:36 27090 Sehitkamil, Gaziantep, Turkey, Tel: 03422116556, Fax: 03422116566, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(3), 444–467;
Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation in carcinogenesis)

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by presence of the BCR-ABL fusion gene which encodes the constitutively active BCR-ABL chimeric protein. Imatinib is first FDA approved first-line BCR-ABL targeting drug for the treatment of newly diagnosed CML cases. Nowadays there are recently developed and more efficient TKIs in the market. Despite the improvements in the CML therapy by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) primary/secondary resistance or progression from chronic to accelerated and blastic phase may be developed in some cases. Underlying mechanisms of TKI resistance and disease progression may results from BCR/ABL dependent or independent alterations. Recently it was revealed that tumor microenvironment is very important for cancer cell growth, survival, proliferation, hemostasis, invasion and metastasis. Exosomes derived from tumor cells contain many important signaling molecules and transfer these molecules in the neighbouring cells. In the bone marrow matrix CML cells, CML leukemic stem cells,cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells can communicate with each other through exosomes. In this review we focused on biological and clinical importance of CML derived exosomes and we will summarize the recent studies in this field.

Chronic myeloid leukemia
drug resistance
bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells
CML leukemia stem cells
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