IMR Press / FBL / Volume 25 / Issue 9 / DOI: 10.2741/4873

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of autism
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1 Health Profession Awareness Program, Health Facilities Development, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar
2 Precision Medicine, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha, Qatar
3 Developmental Psychology Research Group, Department of Psychology, Kingston University-London, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, United Kingdom
4 Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar
5 Qatar Rehabilitation Institute (QRI), Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar
6 Research and Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar
7 Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Pediatrics Department, Hamad General Hospital (HGH), Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2020, 25(9), 1682–1717; https://doi.org/10.2741/4873
Published: 1 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The hallmarks of genetic disorders and cancer)
Abstract

The prevalence rate of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has reached over 1% world-wide prompting governments, health providers and schools to develop programs and policies to address this challenging disorder. Here, we review the cause(s), as well as environmental factors, genetic mutations, and neural pathways that are implicated in ASD. We also discuss the criteria that are commonly used for the diagnosis of ASD and future clinical genetic testing that can aid in the diagnosis of this disorder. Finally, we provide practical steps that can be used to reduce the incidence and severity of ASD, as well as prognosis and treatment of autism.

Keywords
Autism Spectrum Disorder
ASD
Autism
Environment
Genetics
Risk Factors
Prevelance
Clinical Diagnosis Review
Figures
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