Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), are increasingly becoming significant risk factors for the health of the global population and consume substantial portions of the gross domestic product of all nations. Although conventional therapies that include early diagnosis, nutritional modification of diet, and pharmacological treatments may limit disease progression, tight serum glucose control cannot prevent the onset of future disease complications. With these concerns, novel strategies for the treatment of metabolic disorders that involve the vitamin nicotinamide, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1), mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the cellular pathways of autophagy and apoptosis offer exceptional promise to provide new avenues of treatment. Oversight of these pathways can promote cellular energy homeostasis, maintain mitochondrial function, improve glucose utilization, and preserve pancreatic β-cell function. Yet, the interplay among mTOR, AMPK, and autophagy pathways can be complex and affect desired clinical outcomes, necessitating further investigations to provide efficacious treatment strategies for metabolic dysfunction and DM.