IMR Press / FBL / Volume 24 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/4727

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Cerebral ischemic stroke: cellular fate and therapeutic opportunities
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1 Signal Transduction in Cancer and Stem Cells Laboratory, Division of Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (CSIR-IICB), 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road Kolkata- 700032 and CN-06, Sector-V, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700091, India
Send correspondence to: Mrinal K. Ghosh, Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (CSIR-IICB), 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, India, Tel: 913324995889, Fax: 13324735197, E-mail: mrinal.res@gmail.com
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2019, 24(3), 415–430; https://doi.org/10.2741/4727
Published: 1 January 2019
Abstract

In cerebral tissues, due to continuous and high metabolic demand, energy is produced exclusively by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Obstruction of blood flow leads to cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and decreased cellular ATP production. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as by-product of OXPHOS alter many intracellular signaling pathways and result in damaged cellular components. Under such hypoxic conditions, a key factor known as hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is stabilized and activated and such activation induces expression of a defined set of target genes which are required for cell survival and angiogenesis. Reperfusion that follows such ischemia alters signaling pathways which are involved in cellular fate. Here, we will review the role of ROS, HIF-1 alpha and other signaling network in mitochondrial dysfunction and cell fate determination in ischemia-reperfusion models in the brain. We will also address both current and future therapeutic strategies for clinical significance that are being developed for treatment of cerebral ischemia.

Keywords
Cerebral ischemia
Stroke
ROS
Hypoxia
Mitochondria
Electron transport chain
Signaling
Therapy
Reperfusion
Review
Figures
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