Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) and mitochondrial function and dysfunction
Academic Editors: Yau-Huei Wei, Myung-Shik Lee
Mitochondria are the cell’s power plant to satisfy the energy demands. However, dysfunctional mitochondria can cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and alteration of calcium homeostasis, which are the hallmarks of mitochondrial diseases. Under prolong oxidative stress, repeated cytosolic calcium elevations even only transiently, can lead to activation of some enzymes. One calcium-activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological important in mitochondrial disease is tissue transglutaminase (TG2). TG2 is known as a post-translational modification (PTM) enzyme that is induced by oxidative stress. Compared to other types of PTMs, the physiological significance of TG2 mediated PTM is just beginning to be understood. Once activated, TG2 can modulate transcription, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TG2’s activity not only can modulate the assembly of respiratory chain complexes but can also modulate the transcription of critical genes including PGC-1α and cytochrome C that are important for function and biogenesis of mitochondria. Here, we summarize dysfunctional mitochondria in diseases such as in neurodegenerative disorders can modulate TG2’s activity and function. TG2 is also important for normal function of mitochondria.