IMR Press / FBL / Volume 22 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/4521

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Mitochondria in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

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1 Gencia Biotechnology, 706 B Forest St, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
2 Neurodegeneration Therapeutics, 3050 A Berkmar Dr, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA

Academic Editors: Yau-Huei Wei, Myung-Shik Lee

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2017, 22(5), 854–872; https://doi.org/10.2741/4521
Published: 1 January 2017
Abstract

Mitochondria are responsible for the majority of energy production in energy-intensive tissues like brain, modulate Ca+2 signaling and control initiation of cell death. Because of their extensive use of oxygen and lack of protective histone proteins, mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress (ROS)-induced damage to their genome (mtDNA), respiratory chain proteins and ROS repair enzymes. Animal and cell models of PD use toxins that impair mitochondrial complex I activity. Maintenance of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), particularly in high-energy brain, occurs through complex signaling pathways involving the upstream “master regulator” PGC-1alpha that is transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated. Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) brains have reduced respiratory capacity and impaired mitobiogenesis, which could result in beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Aggregated proteins in genetic and familial AD and PD brains impair mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in activated neuroinflammation. Mitochondrial ROS can activate signaling pathways that mediate cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. The available data support restoration of mitochondrial function to reduce disease progression and restore lost neuronal function in AD and PD.

Keywords
Alzheimer’s Disease
Parkinson’s Disease
Mitochondria
Mitophagy
Oxidative Stress
Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Mitochondrial Dynamics
Neuroinflammation
Immunoaging
Review
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