IMR Press / FBL / Volume 22 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/4509

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Dopamine homeostasis: brain functional connectivity in reward deficiency syndrome

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1 Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA
2 Division of Neuroscience based-Therapy, Summit Estate Recovery Center, Los Gatos, CA, USA
3 Dominion Diagnostics, LLC, North Kingstown, RI, USA
4 Division of Neuroscience Research and Addiction Therapy, Shores Treatment and Recovery Center, Port Saint Lucie, FL, USA
5 Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
6 Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
7 Research Institute of Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
8 Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University Budapest, Hungary
9 Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine. St. Louis, Mo., USA
Academic Editors:Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2017, 22(4), 669–691; https://doi.org/10.2741/4509
Published: 1 January 2017
Abstract

Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis. Agrowing number of studies are helping to determine the putative roles of dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the regulation of activity in resting state networks, particularly in brain reward circuitry affected in drug use disorders. Indeed, we hypothesize in the present review that loss of homeostasis of these systems may lead to ‘unbalanced’ functional networks that might be both cause and outcome of disrupted synaptic communication between cortical and subcortical systems essential for controlling reward, emotional control, sensation seeking, and chronic drug use.

Keywords
Dopamine
Glutamate
Resting State Functional Connectivity
Reward Deficiency Syndrome
RDS
Addiction
Stress
Genetics
DRD2 Gene
Taq1 A1 Allele
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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