IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4390

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


The roles of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in the mammalian testis and immunoprivileged sites

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1 Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
2 Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(2), 316–327;
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leader sequences of coronavirus are altered during infection)

Three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase family, including Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, are collectively called as TAM receptors. TAM receptors have two common ligands, namely, growth arrest specific gene 6 (Gas6) and protein S (ProS). The TAM-Gas6/ProS system is essential for phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, and plays critical roles in regulating immune response. Genetic studies have shown that TAM receptors are essential regulators of the tissue homeostasis in immunoprivileged sites, including the testis, retina and brain. The mechanisms by which the TAM-Gas6/ProS system regulates the tissue homeostasis in immunoprivileged sites are emerging. The roles of the TAM-Gas6/ProS system in regulating the immune privilege were intensively investigated in the mouse testis, and several studies were performed in the eye and brain. This review summarizes our current understanding of TAM signaling in the testis and other immunoprivileged tissues, as well as highlights topics that are worthy of further investigation.

TAM Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Innate Immunity
Immune Privilege
Autoimmune Orchitis
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