Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible gasotransmitter, that influence cellular and organ functions by a number of different mechanisms. Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) is one major H2S-producing enzyme with L-cysteine as the main substrate in mammalian cells. Since the discovery of endogenously-produced H2S as a biological mediator, there has been an explosion of interest in CSE expression and regulation. CSE expression and activity and ultimately the amount of H2S synthesis is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Considering the key role that CSE/H 2 S system plays in both health and diseases, a better understanding of the regulation of CSE/H 2 S system will help us to develop novel and more effective strategies to target CSE and alter H2S production inside cells. In this review, we summarize the altered expression and activity of CSE and abnormal H2S production in various pathophysiological conditions. The current knowledge on the signaling and regulatory pathways for CSE expression and H2S production are also elucidated. As such, our understanding of the pathogenesis of human diseases will be better achieved and the corresponding new therapy can be devised.