IMR Press / FBL / Volume 19 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/4265

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
TNF/TNFR: drug target for autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases
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1 Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, India
2 College of Environmental and Health Sciences, Tajen University, Yanpu, Taiwan
3 College of Environmental and Health Sciences, Tajen University, Yanpu, Taiwan
Academic Editors:Chiranjib Chakraborty, C. George Priya Doss
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2014, 19(7), 1028–1040; https://doi.org/10.2741/4265
Published: 1 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent paradigm shift in genomics and proteonomics in medical biology)
Abstract

Tumor necrosis factor, a regulatory cytokine, is extremely important signaling protein in the immune system. Among TNF family, TNF-α, TNF-β are most the significant family members. Receptor of TNF namely TNFR1 and TNFR2 stimulates two different signaling pathways. TNFR1 signaling induces apoptosis pathway. Conversely, TNFR2 signaling triggers cell survival pathways. In this paper, we discuss about the TNF family with special reference to TNF-α/TNF-β, different hypothesis related to autoimmunity and role of TNF, structure of TNF-α/TNF-β, distribution and normal activity in human body of TNF, receptors and signaling pathway for drug targeting. Finally, we also discuss about the therapy for autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) using small molecules or therapeutic proteins.

Keywords
TNF-alpha
TNF-beta
TNF receptor 1
TNFR1
TNF receptor 2
TNFR2
Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases
IMIDs
Small-molecule inhibitors
Review
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