IMR Press / FBL / Volume 18 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/4176

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

The role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of indirect acute lung injury

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1 Department of Anesthetics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, N.O. 639, Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011, China
Academic Editor:Fei He
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2013, 18(4), 1244–1255;
Published: 1 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular immunology and stem cell biology)

Indirect acute lung injury (IALI) manifests as rapid-onset respiratory failure following secondary clinical events to the parenchyma or lung vasculature, such as hemorrhage shock, extra-pulmonary sepsis, trauma, ischemia-reperfusion, and burn injury. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immune system of lung diseases. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), one of the well characterized PRRs, recognizes not only the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also the endogenous ligands in IALI. In this review, we summarize a variety of reports concerning the role of TLR4 and IALI pathogenesis.

Trauma Hemorrhage Shock
Burn Injury
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