IMR Press / FBL / Volume 17 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/3950

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Uric acid, hyperuricemia and vascular diseases
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1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140
2 Department of Pharmacology and Cardiovascular Research Center, Philadelphia, PA 19140
3 Department of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA 19140
4 Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140
Academic Editor:Xiao-Feng Yang
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2012, 17(2), 656–669; https://doi.org/10.2741/3950
Published: 1 January 2012
Abstract

Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid point to an inflammatory response as the primary mechanism for inducing gout and possibly contributing to uric acid's vascular effects. Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce an inflammatory reaction, which are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs then activate NALP3 inflammasome. MSU also triggers neutrophil activation and further produces immune mediators, which lead to a proinflammatory response. In addition, soluble uric acid can also mediate the generation of free radicals and function as a pro-oxidant. This review summarizes the epidemiological studies of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease, takes a brief look at hyperuricemia and its role in neurological diseases, and highlights the studies of the advanced pathological mechanisms of uric acid and inflammation.

Keywords
Uric acid
Hyperuricemia
Cardiovascular disease
Inflammasome
Review
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