IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/3882

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Induction and patterning of intramembranous bone
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1 Department of Biology, Mount Saint Vincent University, 166 Bedford Highway, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3M 2J6, Canada
Academic Editors:Bodo Christ, Poongodi Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi Geetha-Loganathan
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(7), 2734–2746;
Published: 1 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling mechanisms in development)

The primary focus of this article is to review intramembranous bone development, that is, ossification that takes place directly. Comparisons with endochondral ossification (ossification with a cartilage precursor) will be made in order to illustrate the differences between these two modes of ossification and to highlight the comparatively sparse information that is available about intramembranous ossification. Despite decades of research into understanding skeletal development, there is still much to learn. Most of the research in this area has focused on the development of the calvariae (or skull bones) as typical intramembranous bones and the development of the limb bones as a typical endochondral bones. Few studies investigate other skeletal elements or compare these processes in a systematic manner. In this review, I focus primarily on condensation formation and skeletal patterning with specific examples from different organisms.

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