IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/3793

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Markers of human sperm functions in the ICSI era
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1 Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Andrology and Endocrinology Units, Center of Excellence DeNothe, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Academic Editor: Indrajit Chowdhury

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(4), 1344–1363; https://doi.org/10.2741/3793
Published: 1 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent progress in reproductive biology)
Abstract

The process of fertilization is crucial for species development and maintenance. Due to social and environmental problems, the number of infertile couples is increasing worldwide. Male and female factors contribute equally, and about 7% of men experiences problems in conceiving a child due to sperm defects. Assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), including the most invasive intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), are the only available therapy for severe male factor infertility. Whether such techniques are associated with increased birth defects is still debated, and search for alternative options should go on. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of fertilization may lead to the development of new pharmacological strategies to treat infertile men and new male contraceptive agents. In addition, in view of the low predictive power of routine semen analysis, new tests aimed to better predict the fertilization potential could be developed. The present review summarizes current evidence of the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilization in human spermatozoa, with particular emphasis on the main post-ejaculatory maturation events, i.e. sperm capacitation and motility.

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