IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/3707

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Regulation of protein metabolism by glutamine: implications for nutrition and health
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1 Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science South China and Institute of Animal Science, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tianhe District, Wushan Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China. xi_pb@163.com
2 Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, 2471 TAMU, College Station, Texas, 77843-2471
3 State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 100193
Academic Editor:Guoyao Wu
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(2), 578–597; https://doi.org/10.2741/3707
Published: 1 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino acids in nutrition, health, and disease)
Abstract

Glutamine is the most abundant free alpha-amino acid in plasma and skeletal muscle. This nutrient plays an important role in regulating gene expression, protein turnover, anti-oxidative function, nutrient metabolism, immunity, and acid-base balance. Interestingly, intracellular and extracellular concentrations of glutamine exhibit marked reductions in response to infection, sepsis, severe burn, cancer, and other pathological factors. This raised an important question of whether glutamine may be a key mediator of muscle loss and negative nitrogen balance in critically ill and injured patients. Therefore, since the initial reports in late 1980s that glutamine could stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit proteolysis in rat skeletal muscle, there has been growing interest in the use of this functional amino acid to improve protein balance under various physiological and disease conditions. Although inconsistent results have appeared in the literature regarding a therapeutic role of glutamine in clinical medicine, a majority of studies indicate that supplementing appropriate doses of glutamine to enteral diets or parenteral solutions is beneficial for improving nitrogen balance in animals or humans with glutamine deficiency.

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