IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.2741/3434

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Molecular characterization of the tick-Borrelia interface

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1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3711

Academic Editor: Jose de la Fuente

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(8), 3051–3063; https://doi.org/10.2741/3434
Published: 1 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology of ticks)
Abstract

Spirochetes in the genus Borrelia are responsible for tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease. Borrelia-tick interactions are highly specific as each species of Borrelia is only transmitted by one or a few closely related species of ticks. Borrelia colonize the gut or salivary glands of ticks. Several Borrelia genes required for tick colonization or transmission have been identified. Borrelia genes required for transmission are induced by a pathway controlled by the alternate sigma factors RpoN (σ54) and RpoS (σS). A protein in the gut of I. scapularis ticks that functions as a receptor for B. burgdorferi has been identified. In addition, Ixodes tick saliva has proteins that alter host hemostasis and immunity, and some of these salivary proteins directly interact with Borrelia to facilitate transmission and host infection, whereas others appear to assist Borrelia indirectly by suppressing host defense mechanisms. The exciting discoveries on Borrelia-tick interactions are also being translated into novel preventive measures such as transmission blocking vaccines.

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