IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/3233

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Neural-immune system interactions in Xenopus

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1 Department of Biology, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135, USA
2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Academic Editor:Jacques Robert
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(1), 112–129;
Published: 1 January 2009

In Xenopus, as in mammals, there is a functionally significant bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. In this review, we describe the evidence for the neural innervation of Xenopus lymphoid organs, review the effects of neurotransmitter and hormone manipulations on measures of immunity, and discuss the role of hormones on immunological changes during metamorphosis. We also speculate as to the phylogenetic significance of these data, and outline possible areas of future research.

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