IMR Press / FBL / Volume 12 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.2741/2390

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Dendritic cells in autoimmune diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders
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1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Neuroimmunology, Center for Cancer Biology, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
Academic Editor:Muhammad Mukhtar
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2007, 12(11), 4315–4335; https://doi.org/10.2741/2390
Published: 1 May 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders)
Abstract

Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen presenting cells and have long been recognized as key regulators of the immune system, linking both stimulatory and inhibitory components of normal immunity. While DCs are fully characterized with respect to primary and secondary immune responses, their unique role in coordinating central and peripheral tolerance is just emerging. It is increasingly evident that the failure of DCs ability to maintain tolerance can lead to autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases. However, existing literature highlighting participation of DCs in several autoimmune phenomena is scattered and remains underappreciated. This review is a comprehensive account of current knowledge characterizing the role of DCs in various autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, and diabetes. Additionally, it provides a rare description of DCs participation in various neuroinflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis, HAM/TSP, Alzheimer disease and prion-associated diseases. Finally, a detailed description of the possible mechanisms of DC involvement in regulating immune response towards self versus non-self is discussed. Overall, the goal of this review is to establish DCs in the interface of tolerance and autoimmunity and generate a global interest in this field in order to exploit DC potential for the therapy of inflammatory diseases.

Keywords
Autoimmune diseases
Alzheimer
Dendritic cells
Diabetes
HAM/TSP
Multiple sclerosis
Neuroinflammation
Prion diseases
Psoriasis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Sjogren's syndrome
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Review
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