Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is known to play a regulatory role at the gene and protein level in several cell specific processes including metabolism (e.g. oxidative fuel, gluconeogenic precursor and lipogenic precursor), cell integrity (survival, cell proliferation), protein synthesis and degradation, redox potential, respiratory burst, insulin resistance, insulin secretion and extracellular matrix synthesis. Glutamine has been shown to regulate the expression of many genes related to metabolism, signal transduction, cell defense and repair and to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, the function of glutamine goes beyond that of a simple metabolic fuel or protein precursor as previously assumed. In this review, we have attempted to identify some of the common mechanisms underlying glutamine dependent changes in gene and protein expression and cellular function.