Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Monocytes/macrophages have critical impact on outcomes of lung inflammation. Kinetics and mechanisms for the increase of monocytes/macrophages in lungs are not completely understood. To better understand these mechanisms, E. coli-LPS (250 micro grams; N = 35) or endotoxin-free saline (N = 5) were instilled intratracheally in Sprague-Dawley rats and the increase in monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was quantified at various time points after LPS treatment. In contrast to typical pattern of neutrophil influx between 6 and 24 hours, monocytes/macrophages increased in two distinct phases, very early at 3 hours and late at 24 hours. The role of neutrophils in monocyte/macrophage increase was addressed in LPS-challenged neutropenic rats (N = 8). Neutrophil depletion before instillation of LPS abrogated the early as well as late monocyte/macrophage increases in the lung. Quantification of MCP-1, which is one of the major chemoattractants for monocytes, in lung homogenates showed similar concentrations in neutropenic and non-neutropenic LPS-challenged rats. These findings show that increase in monocytes/macrophages in lung occurs in two, early and late phases, both being dependent on neutrophils but not on MCP-1.