IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4895

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Neuroendocrine effects of cadmium exposure on male reproductive functions
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1 Departamento de Biologia de la Reproduccion, DCBS, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, CDMX, Mexico
2 Doctorado en Ciencias Biologicas, DCBS, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, CDMX, Mexico
Send correspondence to: Marcela Arteaga-Silva, Departamento de Biologia de la Reproduccion, DCBS, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, CDMX, Mexico, Tel: 01 555804-4600, Fax 01 55 5804-4930, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(2), 286–326;
Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enviromental medicine and its impact on human health)

In industrialized countries, the use of Cadmium (Cd) produces a form of anthropogenic pollution. Hence, exposure by human populations is becoming a public health problem. With a half-life of up to 40 years, cadmium is now a topic of great interest due to its role as an endocrine disruptor and its effects on male reproduction. Cd’s diverse toxic mechanisms are based on its capacity to mimic divalent ions –calcium, zinc, iron– that participate in physiological processes. It alters the mitochondrial function and generates the production of free radicals that can induce apoptosis. In male reproduction, Cd alters the precise coordination of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-testis axis (HHT), resulting in the loss of testicular functions like steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis and the onset of puberty, sexual maturity, sexual behavior and fertility. Exposure to Cd may even cause changes in the immune system that are associated with the reproductive system. This review analyses the state of the question regarding Cd’s cellular and physiological mechanisms and the effects of this heavy metal on the neuroendocrine regulation of male reproduction.

Male Reproduction
Semen quality
Immune system
Figure 1
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