IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.52586/5021
Open Access Review
An updated overview of the physiological and molecular responses of rice to anoxia
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1 Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology Research Unit, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: (Malay Kumar Adak); (Mirza Hasanuzzaman)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(11), 1240–1255;
Submitted: 23 July 2021 | Revised: 19 August 2021 | Accepted: 1 September 2021 | Published: 30 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Abiotic Stress)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Waterlogging or flooding in agricultural soil constructs a complex abiotic stress-web in crop plants throughout the lowland agricultural system. In rice, a staple grain crop in the world, submergence creates a long-term and recurrent problem for crops withstanding and their succeeding productivity. Therefore, to restore a satisfactory yield instead of a failure of crop in such submerged areas, the analysis of plants’ responses is important. Such analysis will facilitate research about the entity components of plants responses to anoxia or submergence. For example, the development of cellular and molecular cascade in gene expression of ROS signaling and its subsequent responses may lead to either tolerance or susceptibility in plants. Interplay of plant growth regulators [e.g., ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA) etc.] is the well-recognized residues in the coordination of signaling, its transmission through cellular network, and finally, modulation of gene expression are the keys to such tolerance. Nucleotide elements that are specifically sensitive to ethylene have been rescued from land-races of aus-type group of rice (Oryza sativa) and those are considered as the prime determinants for tolerance against anoxia. In this comprehensive text, we tried to accommodate and revise the fundamental and pivotal mechanisms of submergence stress at different angles of physiological and cellular responses of plants. These have also been reviewed for modern state of art techniques deciphering the molecular rejoinders like microRNA, protein-protein interaction, feedback regulation of expression, sugar sensing, amplification of elicitor’s responses and others. Finally, strategies including physiological selection, metabolic engineering, marker assisted selection, genetical manipulation, interspecific hybridization are involved in developing stress resilience and plants’ architecture to support sustainable agriculture under lowland systems.

Abiotic stress
Climate change
Deepwater rice
Low oxygen stress
Fig. 1.
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