IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.52586/5015
Open Access Article
Short and long-term effects of high-intensity interval training applied alone or with whole-body cryostimulation on glucose homeostasis and myokine levels in overweight to obese subjects
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1 Department of Physiology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
2 Department of Physiotherapy, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
3 Department of Physical Education and Lifelong Sports, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznan, Poland
4 Department of Health and Natural Science, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
5 Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-210 Gdansk, Poland
6 Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi (IRCCS), 20161 Milano, Italy
7 Department of Athletics, Strength and Conditioning, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznan, Poland
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(11), 1132–1146; https://doi.org/10.52586/5015
Submitted: 4 October 2021 | Revised: 3 November 2021 | Accepted: 4 November 2021 | Published: 30 November 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Abstract

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem of physical inactivity and weight gain. Consequently, new strategies to counteract weight gain are being sought. Because of their accessibility, interval training and cold therapy are the most popular such strategies. We here aimed to examine the effect of 6 units of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), applied alone or in combination with 10 sessions of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; 3 min at –110 C per session) on incretins, myokines, and adipokines levels. Materials and methods: The study involved 65 subjects (body mass index of approximately 30 kgm-2). The subjects were randomly divided into training group (TR; n = 27) and training supported by WBC group (TR-WBC; n = 38). Blood samples were collected before, immediately following, and 4 weeks after the intervention. Results: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels significantly increased (p = 0.03) and adiponectin levels increased in the TR group (p = 0.05) compared with those recorded in TR-WBC group 24 h after the end of experimental protocol. Beneficial changes in the lipid profile (p = 0.07), a significant drop in visfatin levels (p < 0.05), and the improvement in β-cell function (HOMA-B; p = 0.02) were also observed in the TR group in the same time point of study. While TR-WBC did not induce similar changes, it ameliorated blood glucose levels (p = 0.03). Changes induced by both interventions were only sustained for 4 weeks after treatment. Conclusion: Collectively, HIIT, alone and in combination with WBC, positively affects metabolic indicators, albeit, most likely, different mechanisms drive the beneficial effects of different treatments.

Keywords
Fibroblast growth factor 21
Adiponectin
Cold exposure
Physical activity
COVID-19
Figures
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