IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.52586/5007
Open Access Original Research
Anti-Parkinson’s evaluation of Brassica juncea leaf extract and underlying mechanism of its phytochemicals
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1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan
2 Yunnan Herbal Laboratory, College of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan, China
3 International Joint Research Center for Sustainable Utilization of CordycepsBioresouces in China and South-east Asia, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan, China
4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan
5 Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, 54000 Lahore, Pakistan
6 Department of Botany, Faculty of Biological and Health Sciences, Hazara University, 21120 Mansehra, Pakistan
7 Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, 57000 Sahiwal, Pakistan
8 Department of Chemistry, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, 75300 Karachi, Pakistan
9 Dr. Muhammad Ajmal Khan Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi, Pakistan
10 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, 21944 Taif, Saudi Arabia
11 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, 21944 Taif, Saudi Arabia
12 Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, MSD2080 Msida, Malta
13 Centre for Molecular Medicine and Biobanking, University of Malta, MSD2080 Msida, Malta
14 Department of Pharmacology, Bromatology, Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Jr. Puno 1002, 15001 Lima, Peru
15 E-Health Research Center, Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades, 15001 Lima, Peru
16 Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, 21961 Makkah, Saudi Arabia
*Correspondence: (Uzma Saleem); (Muhammad Ajmal Shah)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(11), 1031–1051;
Submitted: 2 June 2021 | Revised: 30 August 2021 | Accepted: 26 October 2021 | Published: 30 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with progressive neuronal damage and dysfunction. Oxidative stress helps to regulate neurodegenerative and neuronal dysfunction. Natural compounds could attenuate oxidative stress in a variety of neurological disorders. B. juncea is a rich source of antioxidants. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of B. juncea leaves for the treatment of PD by applying behavioral, in vivo and in silico studies. For in vivo studies rats were divided into six groups (n = 6). Group-I served as normal control (vehicle control). Group-II was disease control (haloperidol 1 mg/kg). Group-III was kept as a standard group (L-Dopa 100 mg/kg + carbidopa 25 mg/kg). Groups (IV–VI) were the treatment groups, receiving extract at 200-, 400- and 600 mg/kg doses respectively, for 21 days orally. Results: In vivo study results showed that the extract was found to improve muscles strength, motor coordination, and balance in PD. These behavioral outcomes were consistent with the recovery of endogenous antioxidant defence in biochemical analysis which was further corroborated with histopathological ameliorations. Dopamine levels increased and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) levels decreased dose-dependently in the brain during the study. Herein, we performed molecular docking analysis of the proposed extracted phytochemicals has explained that four putative phytochemicals (sinapic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid) have presented very good results in terms of protein-ligand binding interactions as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion & toxicity (ADMET) profile estimations. Conclusion: The undertaken study concluded the anti-Parkinson activity of B. juncea and further suggests developments on its isolated compounds in PD therapeutics.

Molecular docking
Neuronal dysfunction
Oxidative stress
Fig. 1.
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