Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
The prevalence rate of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has reached over 1% world-wide prompting governments, health providers and schools to develop programs and policies to address this challenging disorder. Here, we review the cause(s), as well as environmental factors, genetic mutations, and neural pathways that are implicated in ASD. We also discuss the criteria that are commonly used for the diagnosis of ASD and future clinical genetic testing that can aid in the diagnosis of this disorder. Finally, we provide practical steps that can be used to reduce the incidence and severity of ASD, as well as prognosis and treatment of autism.