IMR Press / FBL / Volume 24 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/4762

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Recent advances in understanding of amino acid signaling to mTORC1 activation
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1 Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, 410081, P.R. China
2 Human Engineering & Research Center of Animal and Poultry Science, Key Lab Agroecology Processing Subtropical Region, Scientific Observational and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Science, Changsha, Hunan, 410125, P.R. China
*Correspondence: hesp@hunnu.edu.cn (Shanping He)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2019, 24(5), 971–982; https://doi.org/10.2741/4762
Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino acids and their sensors)
Abstract

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master controller of cell growth and metabolism which integrates diverse bio-signaling inputs to coordinate various fundamental biological processes. Amino acids, especially leucine, arginine and glutamine, signal to mTORC1 activation. Classically, Rag GTPases play a crucial role in amino acids-induced mTORC1 activation in the lysosome and Golgi apparatus. More recently, multiple amino acid sensors have been identified and most of them indirectly associate with Rag GTPases. As a result, the mechanistic details on how amino acids are sensed and activate mTORC1 are rapidly evolving. This review discusses current understanding of mTORC1 activation and provides a brief and up-to-date narrative on the progress of amino acid sensors regulating mTORC1 activation.

Keywords
Amino acid signaling
mTORC1
Amino acid sensors
Review
Figures
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