IMR Press / FBL / Volume 22 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/4526

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Alpha-Enolase (ENO1), a potential target in novel immunotherapies

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1 Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, 10126 Italy
2 Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Turin, Turin, 10126 Italy
3 Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, Turin, 10126 Italy
4 Immunogenetics and Transplantation Biology Service, Azienda Universitaria Ospedaliera Città Della Salute e Della Scienza di Torino, Torino 10126 Italy

Academic Editor: Roberto Bei

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2017, 22(5), 944–959; https://doi.org/10.2741/4526
Published: 1 January 2017
Abstract

Alpha-enolase (ENO1) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of pyruvate. It also acts as a plasminogen receptor and mediates the activation of plasmin and extracellular matrix degradation. In tumor cells, ENO1 is up-regulated and supports the Warburg effect; it is expressed at the cell surface, where it promotes cancer invasion, and is subjected to a specific array of post-translational modifications, namely acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. ENO1 overexpression and post-translational modifications could be of diagnostic and prognostic value in many cancer types. Information on the biochemical, proteomics and immunological characterization of ENO1, and particularly its ability to trigger a strong specific humoral and cellular immune response, make this ubiquitous protein an interesting tumor target; DNA vaccination with ENO1 in preclinical models efficiently delays the development of very aggressive tumors such as pancreatic cancer. This review aims to analyze the main stages by which the tumor associated antigen (TAA) ENO1 has become a promising target that opens potential avenues for cancer im

Keywords
Alpha-enolase
ENO1
Cancer
Humoral Response
Glycolysis
Invasion
Immunotherapy
Pancreatic Cancer
Plasminogen Receptor
T cell response
Vaccination
TAAs
Metastasis
Review
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