IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2308288
Open Access Review
Traditional and Emerging Sex-Specific Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Women
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1 Emory Women’s Heart Center and Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2 J. Willis Hurst Internal Medicine Residency Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
3 Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*Correspondence: (JoAnn E. Manson)
Academic Editor: Brian Tomlinson
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(8), 288;
Submitted: 16 April 2022 | Revised: 14 July 2022 | Accepted: 29 July 2022 | Published: 16 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Disease in Women)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major health threat in women. While traditional CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and smoking have been recognized for over 50 years, optimal control of these risk factors remains a major challenge. Unique sex-specific risk factors such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, premature menopause and low estrogen states, and chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorders also contribute to increased CVD risk in women. In addition, psychological risk factors such as stress, depression, and social determinants of health may have a disproportionately adverse impact in women. An improved understanding of traditional and emerging sex-specific CVD risk factors and management of modifiable factors is critical for clinicians who provide care for women. Early recognition and treatment of risk factors may alter the trajectory of adverse CVD events. A multi-disciplinary approach with team-based care involving multiple specialists and improved, targeted educational efforts are needed to reduce CVD risk factors and its adverse consequences in women.

heart disease
sex-specific risk factors
1U54AG062334-01/Specialized Center of Research Excellence in Sex Differences (SCORE) from the NIH
1R01HL157311/Specialized Center of Research Excellence in Sex Differences (SCORE) from the NIH
Fig. 1.
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