Academic Editor: Carl J. Lavie
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), major adverse CVD events, and cardiovascular mortality. Low levels of physical activity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness further compound the health consequences in this patient population. Aerobic exercise alone and the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise have beneficial effects for improving aerobic capacity while resistance exercise alone improves strength and skeletal muscle health. Given the prevalence of CVD in CKD patients and limited treatment options targeting traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors in this population, the incoroporation of physical activity and exercise into the care of CKD seems critical for improving patient outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the evidence of physical activity and exercise in CKD patients and the effects on cardiovascular outcomes and fitness.