IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2308273
Open Access Review
Physical Activity and Exercise for Cardiorespiratory Health and Fitness in Chronic Kidney Disease
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1 Research & Development Service, VA Medical Center, Washington DC 20422, USA
2 Department of Health, Human Fuction, and Rehabilitation Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20037, USA
3 Renal Service, VA Medical Center, Washington DC 20422, USA
4 Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20037, USA
*Correspondence: (Jared M. Gollie)
Academic Editor: Carl J. Lavie
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(8), 273;
Submitted: 30 April 2022 | Revised: 23 June 2022 | Accepted: 29 June 2022 | Published: 26 July 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), major adverse CVD events, and cardiovascular mortality. Low levels of physical activity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness further compound the health consequences in this patient population. Aerobic exercise alone and the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise have beneficial effects for improving aerobic capacity while resistance exercise alone improves strength and skeletal muscle health. Given the prevalence of CVD in CKD patients and limited treatment options targeting traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors in this population, the incoroporation of physical activity and exercise into the care of CKD seems critical for improving patient outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the evidence of physical activity and exercise in CKD patients and the effects on cardiovascular outcomes and fitness.

aerobic exercise
resistance exercise
cardiorespiratory fitness
vascular function
oxygen consumption
1IK2RX003423/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Career Development Award (VA CDA-2) from the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service at the VA Office of Research and Development
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