IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2305166
Open Access Systematic Review
Cardiovascular implications in adolescent and young adult hypertension
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1 Akron Nephrology Associates/Cleveland Clinic Akron General Medical Center, Akron, OH 44307, USA
2 Department of Nephrology, Akron Children’s Hospital, Akron, OH 44308, USA
3 Department of Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
4 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH 44308, USA
*Correspondence:; (Rupesh Raina)
Academic Editors: Ichiro Wakabayashi and Klaus Groschner
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(5), 166;
Submitted: 10 November 2021 | Revised: 21 December 2021 | Accepted: 21 December 2021 | Published: 7 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States, affecting an estimated 3.5% of children and adolescents. It can be adversely affect most organ systems but is particularly detrimental to the heart and vascular systems. The repercussions can be gauged through well-established measures of cardiovascular function including left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), and aortic stiffness. Cardiovascular function is also affected by underlying etiologies of hypertension including chronic kidney disease, polycystic kidney disease, coarctation of the aorta, adrenal disorders, renal artery stenosis, obstructive sleep apnea, as well as various drugs and medications (decongestants, stimulants, Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), and steroids). Methods: An exhaustive literature search was conducted for clinical data regarding pediatric hypertension. Sixty-seven articles were incorporated with data on 189,477 subjects total. The data was then extracted and categorized as relating to hypertension incidence, LVMI, LVH, cIMT, and/or aortic stiffness. Results: The prevalence of pediatric (<18 years) hypertension extracted from 47 studies from 1994 to 2018 averaged 4%. The LVMI assessed over 7 studies (n = 661) averaged 39.3 g/m2.7 in the hypertensive cohort and 30.1 g/m2.7 in the control cohort. The cIMT assessed over 7 studies (n = 580) averaged 0.55 mm in the hypertensive cohort and 0.49 mm in the control cohort. Ambulatory arterial stiffness parameters assessed over 5 studies (n = 573) in the normotensive cohort averaged 99.73 mmHg, 69.81 mmHg, 76.85 mmHg, and 46.90 mmHg, for SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP respectively. Ambulatory arterial stiffness parameters assessed over 5 studies (n = 573) in the hypertensive cohort averaged 129.56 mmHg, 73.69 mmHg, 95.08 mmHg, and 56.80 mmHg, for SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP respectively. Conclusions: The significance of pediatric hypertension is emphasized by evidence of early cardiovascular disease as demonstrated by non-invasive measures including cIMT and arterial stiffness parameters, and target organ damage and including LVH and LVMI factors. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure is paramount for improving long term cardiovascular health and preventing long term morbidity and mortality.

Pediatric hypertension
Cardiovascular outcomes
Adolescent hypertension
Fig. 1.
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