IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2303103
Open Access Review
Modern mapping and ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias
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1 Arrhythmia Unit, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 17674 Athens, Greece
2 Cardiac Arrhythmia Department, Humanitas Research Hospital IRCCS Rozzano, 20089 Milan, Italy
3 Department of Cardiology, KAT General Hospital of Attica, 14561 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: (Stylianos Dragasis);; (Konstantinos P. Letsas)
Academic Editors: Bernard Belhassen and Petr Ostadal
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(3), 103;
Submitted: 27 November 2021 | Revised: 13 December 2021 | Accepted: 20 December 2021 | Published: 16 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Outflow tract (OT) premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are being recognized as a common and often troubling, clinical electrocardiographic finding. The OT areas consist of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT), the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT), the Aortomitral Continuity (AMC), the aortic cusps and the Left Ventricular (LV) summit. By definition, all OT PVCs will exhibit an inferior QRS axis, defined as positive net forces in leads II, III and aVF. Activation mapping using the contemporary 3D mapping systems followed by pace mapping is the cornerstone strategy of every ablation procedure in these patients. In this mini review we discuss in brief all the modern mapping and ablation modalities for successful elimination of OT PVCs, along with the potential advantages and disadvantages of each ablation technique.

premature ventricular contractions
3D mapping systems
Fig. 1.
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