IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2302053
Open Access Review
COVID-19 and the long-term cardio-respiratory and metabolic health complications
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1 Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, DE22 1GB Derby, UK
2 Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
3 Advanced Well-being Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, S9 3TU Sheffield, UK
4 Centre for Physical Activity and Life Sciences, University of Northampton, NN1 5PH Northampton, UK
5 Department of Oncology and Metabolism, The Medical School, University of Sheffield, S19 2RX Sheffield, UK
*Correspondence: (Ruth Ashton)
Academic Editor: Peter Kokkinos
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(2), 53;
Submitted: 15 December 2021 | Revised: 7 January 2022 | Accepted: 12 January 2022 | Published: 9 February 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission continues to impact people globally. Whilst the acute symptoms and management strategies are well documented, millions of people globally are experiencing a prolonged and debilitating symptom profile that is reported to last months and even years. COVID-19 is a multi-system disease however the magnitude of the effects and its associated legacy is presently not well understood. Early reports indicate that multidisciplinary approaches between clinical and non-clinical entities are needed to provide effective and rehabilitative patient support pathways and restore pre-COVID-19 quality of life and functional status. Accordingly, this review provides a summary of the impact on cardiovascular, inflammatory, respiratory, and musculoskeletal function following an acute COVID-19 infection along with the prolonged effects of long-COVID.

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