IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2311367
Open Access Review
Recurrent Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Association with Takotsubo Syndrome and Fibromuscular Dysplasia; Comprehensive Review
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1 Coronary Artery Disease Area, Heart and Vascular Theme, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
2 Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
3 Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, 18288 Danderyd, Sweden
*Correspondence: (Shams Y-Hassan)
Academic Editors: Jerome L. Fleg, Massimo Volpe, Filippos Triposkiadis, Grigorios Korosoglou and Matteo Cameli
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(11), 367;
Submitted: 7 July 2022 | Revised: 21 September 2022 | Accepted: 23 September 2022 | Published: 27 October 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Cardiovascular Medicine in Europe 2022)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-traumatic, non-iatrogenic, and non-atherosclerotic separation or dissection of the coronary arterial wall by the formation of an intramural hematoma causing a false lumen leading to compression of the true lumen with a varying degree of coronary blood flow obstruction. One of the important and frequent complications of the disease is the in-hospital and long-term SCAD recurrence. SCAD associated with takotsubo syndrome (TS) has been described in case reports, series of cases and in some studies. Some investigators believe that the association of SCAD and TS is a misdiagnosis. The association of SCAD and fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) has received major attention during the last 10 years. In this report, the short and long-term SCAD recurrence, SCAD association with TS and FMD are reviewed and demonstrated with illustrative images.

spontaneous coronary artery dissection
takotsubo syndrome
fibromuscular dysplasia
myocardial infarction
recurrent SCAD
Fig. 1.
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